Data sharing FAQs
What data do I need to share?
We ask that the minimum data required to reproduce the results presented in the associated article should be made available. This may be raw or processed data and examples include (but are not limited to) gene sequences, microarray data, spreadsheets, survey results, interviews, etc. Please use open file types where possible e.g. CSV rather than XLSX.
We request that all code needed to reproduce the results are made available. We encourage deposition in a publicly available repository, such as GitHub or Code Ocean, which will provide a persistent link. This should be referenced in the text and included as part of the Data Availability Statement.
We strongly encourage analysis methods that utilize a command line, as this captures every step of an analysis. However, if code is not available (for example, the analysis was completed within a point and click system, such as GraphPad), then in addition to a detailed description of the analysis, files generated with point and click systems should be made available and be deposited in general repositories such as those detailed below.
Where can I deposit my data?
Data should be deposited in a recognised, subject-specific repository, which provides a persistent identifier (e.g. a DOI or accession number), such as GenBank or OpenNeuro, where relevant and available.
There are also a number of recognised, general repositories in which to deposit data, for example, DRYAD, OSF, FigShare and Zenodo. FAIRsharing and re3data.org provide a useful list of repositories.
Can I upload data as supplementary information?
Data files may not be uploaded as supplementary material. Data hidden in supplementary files are not easily discoverable, do not have unique permanent identifiers, and are not protected in perpetuity, unlike the article.
Can I embargo my data?
We acknowledge researchers’ rights to reasonable first use of data and so we are happy to support an embargo of the data up to the point of publication. However, the data must be seen by the Editors and referees prior to acceptance of the article and the author must undertake to make the data publicly available prior to publication of the article.
Data availability statement
Upon submission you will be asked to choose from the following data availability statements:
- Data are available in a public, open access repository
- There are no data in this work
You will be also be asked to add in the name of the repository(/ies) containing the data and the associated persistent links to the data. The Data Availability Statement will automatically be placed at the end of the article for you.
The following choices are to be used only in exceptional circumstances, as agreed with the Editor, and should include a full description of why the data are not available.
- Data are available upon request
- Data obtained from a third party
How to cite data?
Please follow the Datacite advice when citing datasets in reference lists and use the following format:
Creator (Publication Year). Title. Version. Publisher. ResourceType. Identifier
All data should be cited, where appropriate, in the text of the article.
Open Science Foundation (OSF) Open Data Badges
If you have made your data publicly available and our Editors are satisfied that you have shared sufficient information in the data for an independent researcher to reproduce the reported results then you will receive an OSF Open Data badge.
The criteria to be awarded a badge can be found here:
Researchers who take steps to reduce bias by specifying in advance how data will be collected and analysed may be eligible for awards of up to $1000 as part of the Center for Open Science’s Preregistration Challenge.
Enforcement of the policy
All articles should have associated publicly available data, unless an exception has been granted. Editors check that the data are available but we do not currently perform peer review on that data. In the event of embargo, data must still be made available to the reviewers/editorial team prior to review. Authors must agree to make the data publicly available no later than the time of online publication.