Table 1

Glossary of terms and abbreviations used throughout this article

Automation tool‘Automation tool’ refers to a software application with a user interface that fully or partially automates a task conducted by systematic reviewers.15
CamaradesCollaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies. CAMARADES is an international collaboration of researchers working in preclinical systematic reviews and meta-research. Based at University of Edinburgh, it has five additional coordinating centres; BIH QUEST Center for Transforming Biomedical Research, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; University of Tasmania, Australia; SYRCLE, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Netherlands; University of California San Francisco, United States; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada.
DeduplicationDeduplication refers to the task of removing duplicate citations from systematic searches across multiple bibliographic databases. This step is done prior to citation screening.
Full-text retrievalFull-text retrieval refers to the task of identifying and downloading full-text publications of articles potentially relevant to the research question of a systematic review. The retrieved format may be PDF, or machine-readable such as XML or HTML.
MetadataMetadata here refers to the structured set of elements which describe the bibliographic record (journal article, experimental report, preprint). For example, Title, Authors, Year of Publication, Journal, Issues & Volume, Abstract, Digital Object Identifier (DOI), PubMed ID or other database identifier.
PreclinicalThe term ‘preclinical’ in this context refers to primary experiments conducted in animals to test treatments for human health or to model mechanisms for human health
Systematic reviewA systematic review is a review that uses explicit, systematic methods to collate and synthesize findings of studies that address a clearly formulated question2
SyRFCAMARADES-NC3Rs Systematic Review Facility; a free-to-use web-based software/platform to support the conduct of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Available at