Method | Variable | Estimate (SE/MC error) | 95% Cl | P value | τ^{2} | I^{2} (%) | R^{2} (%) |

REML | No covariate | 35.5 (2.35) | 30.8 to 40.2 | <0.0001 | 213.9 | 82.4 | |

Blinded induction of ischaemia (intercept) | 39.0 (2.76) | 33.5 to 44.5 | <0.0001 | 204.5 | 79.8 | 4.36 | |

Blinded induction of ischaemia (true) | −11.2 (4.88) | −21.0 to −1.46 | 0.03 | ||||

Control of temperature (intercept) | 38.2 (3.19) | 31.8 to 44.5 | <0.0001 | 219.1 | 81.0 | 0 | |

Control of temperature (false) | −5.67 (4.70) | −15.1 to 3.72 | 0.23 | ||||

DL | No covariate | 35.7 (2.35) | 31.0 to 40.4 | <0.0001 | 235.2 | 83.7 | – |

Blinded induction of ischaemia (intercept) | 39.5 (2.76) | 34.0 to 45.1 | <0.0001 | 267.6 | 83.8 | 0 | |

Blinded induction of ischaemia (true) | −11.5 (4.88) | −21.2 to −1.73 | 0.02 | ||||

Control of temperature (intercept) | 38.6 (3.19) | 32.2 to 45.0 | <0.0001 | 268.4 | 83.9 | 0 | |

Control of temperature (false) | −6.00 (4.70) | −15.4 to 3.40 | 0.21 | ||||

Bayesian | No covariate | 35.5 (0.03) | 30.3 to 40.7 | <0.0001 | 224.2 | ||

Blinded induction of ischaemia (intercept) | 38.9 (0.06) | 32.9 to 45.3 | <0.0001 | 212.9 | |||

Blinded induction of ischaemia (true) | −11.1 (0.11) | −22.3 to −0.12 | 0.04 | ||||

Control of temperature (intercept) | 38.0 (0.07) | 31.0 to 45.4 | <0.0001 | 227.7 | |||

Control of temperature (false) | −5.58 (0.10) | −16.5 to 4.84 | 0.31 |

P values are calculated based on Wald-type test statistics for frequentist approaches and using probability of direction for Bayesian approach as detailed in ref 39. Associated full tables can be found in the Appendix (https://osf.io/6usxq/) (Bayesian priors: , ).

DL, DerSimonian and Laird; MC, Monte Carlo; REML, restricted maximum likelihood.