Table 1
Bias exampleExamples of harm resulting from biasCurrent prevalent bias countermeasuresCountermeasures goalLikely strength of the current bias countermeasures
Sponsorship bias4Possible suppression of critical evidenceDisclosure of financial relationshipBias DetectionWeak7 13 14 18 50 51
Selection, performance and detection biases52Publications that report what are likely to be false positive findings
  1. Peer Review

  2. Journal Checklists

  3. Investigator Guidelines

Bias Detection and Bias Prevention
  1. Variable53 54

  2. Variable35 36 55 56

  3. Variable52

Publication biases (eg, selective reporting and non-reporting of outcomes)Inaccurate and/or irreproducible findings
  1. Peer review

  2. Reporting bias tools for use in systematic reviews (eg, scales and checklists)57 58

Bias Detection
  1. Variable2 32

  2. Variable to Weak59–62