Table 1

Main types of animal models for the study of treatment efficacy in carbapenem-resistant bacteria and associated advantages or limitations

Site of infectionAdvantagesDisadvantages
ThighPK/PD parameters often studied; low cost; highly reproducibleLack of relevance for other infections (eg, pneumonia); time consuming (tissue homogenisation and filtration required for viable counting)
SepticaemiaSimple endpoints (mortality), less time consuming; assessment of novel antibioticsNumber of bacteria in blood may not correspond to clinical outcome
EndocarditisStudy of conditions favouring antibiotic resistance; test response to bloodstream infection similar to septicaemia model; PK/PD parameters can be studiedNumber of bacteria in blood may not correspond to clinical outcome
Urinary tract infection (UTI)Useful to simulate human UTI; measures can be taken from kidney, blood, urine, other organsTechnical skills needed to establish infection; time consuming (tissue homogenisation and filtration required for viable counting)
PneumoniaRelevant for respiratory infectionsTechnical skills needed for inoculation; time consuming (tissue homogenisation and filtration required for viable counting)
  • PK/PD, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics.