Table 2

ARRIVE Recommended Set

Recommended Set
Abstract11Provide an accurate summary of the research objectives, animal species, strain and sex, key methods, principal findings and study conclusions.
  1. Include sufficient scientific background to understand the rationale and context for the study, and explain the experimental approach.

  2. Explain how the animal species and model used address the scientific objectives and, where appropriate, the relevance to human biology.

Objectives13Clearly describe the research question, research objectives and, where appropriate, specific hypotheses being tested.
Ethical statement14Provide the name of the ethical review committee or equivalent that has approved the use of animals in this study, and any relevant licence or protocol numbers (if applicable). If ethical approval was not sought or granted, provide a justification.
Housing and husbandry15Provide details of housing and husbandry conditions, including any environmental enrichment.
Animal care and monitoring16
  1. Describe any interventions or steps taken in the experimental protocols to reduce pain, suffering and distress.

  2. Report any expected or unexpected adverse events.

  3. Describe the humane end points established for the study, the signs that were monitored and the frequency of monitoring. If the study did not have humane end points, state this.

Interpretation/Scientific implications17
  1. Interpret the results, taking into account the study objectives and hypotheses, current theory and other relevant studies in the literature.

  2. Comment on the study limitations, including potential sources of bias, limitations of the animal model and imprecision associated with the results.

Generalisability/Translation18Comment on whether, and how, the findings of this study are likely to generalise to other species or experimental conditions, including any relevance to human biology (where appropriate).
Protocol registration19Provide a statement indicating whether a protocol (including the research question, key design features and analysis plan) was prepared before the study, and if and where this protocol was registered.
Data access20Provide a statement describing if and where study data are available.
Declaration of interests21
  1. Declare any potential conflicts of interest, including financial and non-financial. If none exists, this should be stated.

  2. List all funding sources (including grant identifier) and the role of the funder(s) in the design, analysis and reporting of the study.

  • Together with the Essential 10, the Recommended Set represents best reporting practice. Explanations and examples for items 11–21 are available in the Explanation and Elaboration document42 and on the website

  • ARRIVE, Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments.