Table 1

ARRIVE Essential 10

ARRIVE Essential 10
Study design1For each experiment, provide brief details of study design including:
  1. The groups being compared, including control groups. If no control group has been used, the rationale should be stated.

  2. The experimental unit (eg, a single animal, litter or cage of animals).

Sample size2
  1. Specify the exact number of experimental units allocated to each group, and the total number in each experiment. Also indicate the total number of animals used.

  2. Explain how the sample size was decided. Provide details of any a priori sample size calculation, if done.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria3
  1. Describe any criteria used for including and excluding animals (or experimental units) during the experiment, and data points during the analysis. Specify if these criteria were established a priori. If no criteria were set, state this explicitly.

  2. For each experimental group, report any animals, experimental units or data points not included in the analysis and explain why. If there were no exclusions, state so.

  3. For each analysis, report the exact value of n in each experimental group.

  1. State whether randomisation was used to allocate experimental units to control and treatment groups. If done, provide the method used to generate the randomisation sequence.

  2. Describe the strategy used to minimise potential confounders such as the order of treatments and measurements, or animal/cage location. If confounders were not controlled, state this explicitly.

Blinding5Describe who was aware of the group allocation at the different stages of the experiment (during the allocation, the conduct of the experiment, the outcome assessment and the data analysis).
Outcome measures6
  1. Clearly define all outcome measures assessed (eg, cell death, molecular markers or behavioural changes).

  2. For hypothesis-testing studies, specify the primary outcome measure, ie, the outcome measure that was used to determine the sample size.

Statistical methods7
  1. Provide details of the statistical methods used for each analysis, including software used.

  2. Describe any methods used to assess whether the data met the assumptions of the statistical approach, and what was done if the assumptions were not met.

Experimental animals8
  1. Provide species-appropriate details of the animals used, including species, strain and substrain, sex, age or developmental stage and, if relevant, weight.

  2. Provide further relevant information on the provenance of animals, health/immune status, genetic modification status, genotype and any previous procedures.

Experimental procedures9For each experimental group, including controls, describe the procedures in enough detail to allow others to replicate them, including:
  1. What was done, how it was done and what was used.

  2. When and how often.

  3. Where (including detail of any acclimatisation periods).

  4. Why (provide rationale for procedures).

Results10For each experiment conducted, including independent replications, report:
  1. Summary/descriptive statistics for each experimental group, with a measure of variability where applicable (eg, mean and SD, or median and range).

  2. If applicable, the effect size with a confidence interval.

  • Explanations and examples for items 1–10 are available in the Explanation and Elaboration document42 and on the website at:

  • ARRIVE, Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments.