Table 3

Subgroup meta-analysis for lesion volume and neurological score

FactorSMD (95% CI)I2 (%)Q statistic
P value
(df)Subgroup analysis P value
Lesion volume
Randomisation0.026
 Yes (n=16)−1.34 (−1.95 to −0.725)62.639.2
0.0006
15
 No (n=6)−4.36 (−6.94 to −1.77)86.428.4
<0.0001
5
Blinding to stroke0.163
 Yes (n=13)−1.59 (−2.20 to −0.97)58.3529.1
0.0038
12
 No (n=9)−3.31 (−5.65 to −0.97)91.0842.6
<0.0001
8
Blinding to outcome0.172
 Yes (n=17)−1.65 (−2.39 to −0.91)7451.1
<0.0001
16
 No (n=5)−3.93 (−7.11 to −0.75)90.721.6
0.0002
4
EV characterisation0.412
 Yes (n=15)−1.60 (−2.30 to −0.90)6039.9
0.0003
14
 No (n=7)−2.39 (−4.14 to −0.64)89.232.9
<0.0001
6
Timepoint of administrationPrior vs 0–23 hours: 0.761
Prior vs 23–48 hours: 0.666
 Pretreatment (n=3)−2.74 (−6.72 to 1.24)94.711.7
0.0029
2Prior vs multiple: 0.509
 0–23 hours (n=5)−3.53 (−6.64 to −0.411)86.725.3
<0.0001
40–23 hours vs 23–48 hours: 0.324
 23–48 hours (n=7)−1.82 (−3.16 to −0.478)80.723.4
0.0007
60–23 hours vs multiple: 0.188
 Multiple (n=7)−1.39 (−2.05 to −0.720)34.311.5
0.0747
623–48 hours vs multiple: 0.569
Route of administration
 Intravenous (n=17)−1.25 (−1.83 to −0.670)58.143.8
0.0002
16Intravenous vs intra-arterial: 0.042
 Intra-arterial (n=3)−3.66 (−5.91 to −1.41)68.26.77
0.0339
2Intravenous vs other: 0.239
 Other (n=2)−4.58 (−10.1 to 0.937)82.35.64
0.0176
1Intra-arterial vs other: 0.762
Neurological score
Randomisation0.12
 Yes (n=15)−1.07 (−1.52 to −0.622)36.624.2
0.0433
14
 No (n=6)−1.64 (−2.20 to −1.08)010.2
0.0705
5
Blinding to stroke0.902
 Yes (n=10)−1.28 (−1.68 to −0.874)4.5111.1
0.270
9
 No (n=11)−1.22 (−1.98 to −0.465)64.226.3
0.0034
10
Blinding to outcome0.224
 Yes (n=18)−1.12 (−1.49 to −0.747)25.726.0
0.0744
17
 No (n=3)−2.54 (−4.80 to −0.277)83.88.30
0.0157
2
EV characterisation0.49
 Yes (n=16)−1.20 (−1.69 to −0.708)5032.3
0.0059
15
 No (n=5)−1.48 (−2.09 to −0.866)04.35
0.361
4
Timepoint of administration
 Pretreatment (n=0)N/AN/AN/AN/A0–23 hours vs 23–48 hours: 0.715
 0–23 hours (n=4)−1.64 (−3.87 to 0.60)86.715.6
0.0014
30–23 hours vs multiple: 0.765
 23–48 hours (n=13)−1.21 (−1.63 to −0.796)20.117.6
0.128
1223–48 hours vs multiple: 0.894
 Multiple (n=4)−1.27 (−2.08 to −0.466)31.74.46
0.212
3
Route of administration
 Intravenous (n=15)−1.10 (−1.55 to −0.650)42.328.9
0.0107
14Intravenous vs intra-arterial: 0.208
 Intra-arterial (n=5)−1.74 (−2.63 to −0.854)30.65.88
0.209
4Intravenous vs other: 0.353
 Other (n=1)−1.71 (−2.90 to −0.516)N/AN/AN/AIntra-arterial vs other: 0.961
  • EV, extracellular vesicle; N/A, not applicable (for subgroups with fewer than two members where comparisons could not be made); SMD, standardised mean difference.