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Protocol for a systematic review of the validity of animal models of polydipsia with a basis in schizophrenia aetiology
  1. Brian J Slattery,
  2. Sophie Sabherwal,
  3. William T O’Connor
  1. Graduate Entry Medical School, Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Brian J Slattery; brian.slattery{at}


Objective Primary polydipsia most commonly affects those with schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of this occurrence is not established. The aim of this systematic review is to critically assess the internal and external validity of the preclinical animal models available.

Search strategy PubMed and Embase will be searched systematically to identify all relevant animal studies that describe polydipsia induction with a basis in schizophrenia aetiology. The SYRCLE (SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation) search filters to identify all animal studies in both databases will be used. All studies published up to the date of the search will be considered.

Screening and annotation Two independent reviewers will screen the retrieved studies for eligibility based on (1) title and abstract and (2) full text. Disagreements between researchers will be resolved by discussion and referral back to the predefined eligibility criteria with involvement of a third researcher if required.

  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Models, Animal

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated and/or analysed for this study. No data are available.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:

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Strengths and limitations of this study

  • The strengths of this review are its systematic design and use of search filters, bias assessments and quality checklists specifically designed for animal studies.

  • The discussion of construct validity will be limited as the pathophysiology of primary polydipsia in schizophrenia has not been defined.

  • This disease is not a widely studied topic so there may be a narrow amount of literature to review.

  • Additionally, the term ‘schizophrenia aetiology’ is subjective and may lead to exclusion of relevant studies by falling outside the predetermined eligibility criteria.


Primary, or psychogenic, polydipsia is defined as the excess intake of fluids beyond physiological need. It is found most in those with psychiatric illness but particularly in those with schizophrenia.1 Estimates of the proportion affected in those with schizophrenia range from 11–20%.1 Symptoms of schizophrenia are grouped into clusters of negative, positive and cognitive symptoms. Polydipsia falls uniquely outside these clusters. Instead, it is seen as a ‘bizarre behaviour’.2 Severe hyponatraemia can result from the excessive water consumption in primary polydipsia.3 Clinically, this can manifest as headache, ataxia, tremor, nausea, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, seizures and coma.3 Previously, otherwise lucid patients may present with seizures and marked postictal diuresis. These presentations can often be mistakenly attributed to the underling psychiatric illness or associated medications.3 Established hyponatraemia from polydipsia may be reversed by fluid restriction or saline infusion.4 However, apart from reversing polydipsia, there is no successful preventative behavioural or medical treatments available.5 In lieu of a successful treatment a balanced diet, avoidance of drugs that cause mouth dryness and weight screening for excess fluid are employed as supportive measures.1 The pathophysiology of primary polydipsia is not understood. This limits the delivery of targeted treatments.

In human studies altered activity of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been observed. Goldman et al demonstrated a reduced threshold for AVP secretion and increased sensitivity to its actions in patients with psychosis with primary polydipsia and hyponatraemia.6 The threshold for AVP release has also been shown to be exacerbated by psychosis in patients with schizophrenia with hyponatremia and polydipsia.7 One MRI study in humans showed decreased anterior hippocampal volume in patients with hyponatraemic schizophrenia linking an altered structural anatomy to this clinical feature.8

In advancing medical research animal models are an important tool in our understanding of disease and influence the direction of clinical studies. Clinical trials face rigorous systematic reviews but preclinical animal studies do not.9 This systematic review aims to inform the direction of future preclinical studies of primary polydipsia in schizophrenia through discussion of the validity of existing studies. Internal validity will be assessed by the risk of bias tool specifically designed for animal studies by SYRCLE.10 External validity will be discussed relative to what is known in human studies of primary polydipsia in the context of schizophrenia.

To include all animal studies the search terms include animal filters specifically designed for each database by SYRCLE.11 The search terms used by a 2006 Cochrane systematic review into polydipsia are to be used to retrieve all relevant polydipsia-related studies.5 Terms relating to psychosis will be included in addition to terms relating to schizophrenia due to the overlap in designs of their animal models.12 13 (box 1)

Box 1

Search string


Each search term below will be pasted into the Embase search field under ‘advanced search’. Embase mapping options will be deselected. The result of each search term will then be combined.

(I) (“drink*” OR “water int*” OR “polydipsi*” OR “fluid int*” OR “water con*” OR “fluid con*”):ti,ab,kw5

(II) (“schizophren*” OR “psychosis” OR “psychotic”):ti,ab,kw

(III) (“animal experiment”/exp OR “animal model”/exp OR “experimental animal”/exp OR “transgenic animal”/exp OR “male animal”/exp OR “female animal”/exp OR “juvenile animal”/exp OR animal/de OR chordata/de OR vertebrate/de OR tetrapod/de OR fish/exp OR amniote/de OR amphibia/exp OR mammal/de OR reptile/exp OR sauropsid/exp OR therian/de OR monotreme/exp OR “placental mammal”/de OR marsupial/exp OR Euarchontoglires/de OR Afrotheria/exp OR Bore-oeutheria/exp OR Laurasiatheria/exp OR Xenarthra/exp OR primate/de OR Dermoptera/exp OR Glires/exp OR Scandentia/exp OR Haplorhini/de OR prosimian/exp OR simian/de OR tarsiiform/exp OR Catarrhini/de OR Platyrrhini/exp OR ape/de OR Cercopithecidae/exp OR hominid/de OR hylobatidae/exp OR chimpanzee/exp OR gorilla/exp OR “orang utan”/exp OR cephalopod/exp) OR (rat OR rats OR animal OR animals OR mice OR “in vivo” OR mouse OR rabbit OR rabbits OR murine OR pig OR pigs OR dog OR dogs OR bovine OR fish OR vertebrate OR vertebrates OR cat OR cats OR rodent OR rodents OR mammal OR mammals OR chicken OR chickens OR monkey OR monkeys OR sheep OR canine OR canines OR porcine OR cattle OR bird OR birds OR hamster OR hamsters OR primate OR primates OR cow OR cows OR chick OR horse OR horses OR avian OR avians OR calf OR swine OR swines OR xenopus OR turkeys OR bear OR bears OR frog OR frogs OR zebrafish OR goat OR goats OR equine OR calves OR poultry OR macaque OR macaques OR mole OR moles OR ovine OR lamb OR lambs OR fishes OR diptera OR amphibian OR amphibians OR snake OR snakes OR ruminantOR ruminants OR hen OR hens OR piglet OR piglets OR feline OR felines OR simian OR simians OR laevis OR trout OR trouts OR teleost OR teleosts OR salmon OR salmons OR seal OR seals OR bull OR bulls OR ewe OR ewes OR hedgehog OR hedgehogs OR macaca OR macacas OR proteus OR pigeon OR pigeons OR bat OR bats OR duck OR ducks OR chimpanzee OR chimpan-zees OR baboon OR baboons OR deer OR deers OR rana OR ranas OR carp OR carps OR heifer OR swallow OR swallows OR lizard OR lizards OR canis OR sow OR sows OR cynomolgus OR quail OR quails OR reptile OR reptiles OR turtle OR turtles OR buffalo OR gerbil OR gerbils OR boar OR boars OR squirrel OR squirrels OR oncorhynchus OR mus OR toad OR toads OR fowl OR fowls OR rerio OR danio OR ara OR aras OR musculus OR tadpole OR tadpoles OR mulatta OR salmo OR ram OR eagle OR eagles OR ferret OR ferrets OR goldfish OR catfish OR whale OR whales OR fox OR foxes OR ape OR apes OR elephant OR elephants OR bos OR marmoset OR marmosets OR cod OR cods OR shark OR sharks OR wolf OR eelOR eels OR auratus OR rattus OR zebra OR zebras OR tilapia OR tilapias OR gilt OR camel OR camels OR squid OR gallus OR marsupial OR marsupials OR vole OR voles OR fascicularis OR ovis OR salmonid OR salmonids OR tiger OR tigers OR dolphin OR dolphins OR robin OR robins OR carpio OR opossum OR opossums OR cyprinus OR salamander OR salamanders OR felis OR mink OR minks OR swan OR swans OR norvegicus OR bufo OR torpedo OR bass OR lamprey OR lampreys OR sus OR python OR pythons OR tetrapod OR tetrapods OR shrew OR shrews OR lion OR lions OR hog OR hogs OR songbird OR songbirds OR oreochromis OR starling OR starlings OR caprine OR carassius OR owl OR owls OR newt OR newts OR papio OR scrofa OR hare OR hares OR gorilla OR gorillas OR flounder OR flounders OR goose OR herring OR herrings OR therian OR buffaloes OR canary OR sparrow OR sparrows OR microtus OR octopus OR troglodytes OR tuna OR amphibia OR chinchilla OR chinchillas OR ide OR oryzias OR cervus OR kangaroo OR kangaroos OR armadillo OR armadillos OR callithrix OR “pan troglodytes” OR saimiri OR cichlid OR cichlids OR donkey OR donkeys OR bream OR char OR chars OR finch OR raccoon OR raccoons OR bothrops OR anguilla OR perch OR cricetus OR seabird OR seabirds OR buck OR bucks OR naja OR coturnix OR salmonids OR geese OR minnow OR minnows OR raptor OR raptors OR merione OR meriones OR rodentia OR elaphus OR amniote OR am-niotes OR elasmobranch OR emu OR emus OR peromyscus OR hominid OR hominids OR bubalus OR crotalus OR gull OR gulls OR anas OR anura OR lemur OR lemurs OR crow OR crows OR camelus OR gibbon OR gibbons OR waterfowl OR parrot OR parrots OR eels OR cob OR stickleback OR sticklebacks OR columba OR mesocricetus OR ambystoma OR raven OR ravens OR gadus OR penguin OR penguins OR orangutan OR orangutans OR sturgeon OR sturgeons OR cuniculus OR aves OR virginianus OR cephalopod OR cephalopods OR cebus OR sparus OR tortoise OR tortoises OR guttata OR morhua OR unguiculatus OR dogfish OR vulpes OR mallard OR mallards OR apodemus OR alligator OR alligatorsOR oryctolagus OR llama OR llamas OR reindeer OR mustela OR duckling OR ducklings OR wolves OR sander OR amazona OR zebu OR badger OR badgers OR dove OR doves OR ictalurus OR capra OR capras OR equus OR camelid OR camelids OR poecilia OR mule OR mules OR perciformes OR salvelinus OR labrax OR cyprinidae OR ariidae OR crocodile OR crocodiles OR fundulus OR dicentrarchus OR clarias OR cercopithecus OR chiroptera OR alpaca OR alpacas OR pike OR pikes OR paralichthys OR puma OR pumas OR didelphis OR pisces OR macropus OR triturus OR bison OR bisons OR epinephelus OR gasterosteus OR panthera OR acipenser OR mackerel OR mackerels OR tamarin OR tamarins OR ostrich OR anolis OR vervet OR vervets OR wallaby OR glareolus OR beaver OR beavers OR dromedary OR catus OR killifish OR pimephales OR promelas OR aotus OR phoca OR panda OR pandas OR porpoise OR porpoises OR myotis OR yak OR yaks OR agkistrodon OR vipera OR otter OR otters OR turbot OR turbots OR squamate OR carnivora OR mullet OR mullets OR hawk OR hawks OR taeniopygia OR seahorse OR seahorses OR “poecilia reticulata” OR falcon OR falcons OR prosimian OR prosimians OR parus OR perca OR fingerling OR fingerlings OR antelope OR antelopes OR tupaia OR passeriformes OR sepia OR sagu-inus OR coyote OR coyotes OR pongo OR meleagris OR reptilia OR lepus OR psittacine OR hagfish OR warbler OR warblers OR “russell s viper” OR “russell s vipers” OR smolt OR smolts OR budgerigar OR sardine OR sardines OR cavia OR cavias OR hyla OR pleurodeles OR siluriformes OR “great tit” OR “great tits” OR guppy OR bonobo OR bonobos OR rutilus OR trichosurus OR muridae OR phodopus OR channa OR squalus OR lynx OR sturnus OR petromyzon OR vitulina OR monodelphis OR cuttlefish OR adder OR adders OR lepomis OR canaria OR gambusia OR guppies ORxiphophorus OR flatfish OR koala OR koalas OR labeo OR stingray OR stingrays OR chelonia OR lampetra OR spermophilus OR crocodilian OR “passer domesticus” OR sciurus OR artiodactyla OR ranidae OR corvus OR necturus OR platypus OR canaries OR bovid OR lagopus OR trimeresurus OR gariepinus OR marten OR martens OR drosophilidae OR mugil OR sunfish OR porcellus OR cypriniformes OR alouatta OR scophthalmus OR anser OR electrophorus OR putorius OR iguana OR iguanas OR lama OR lamas OR takifugu OR circus OR eptesicus OR flycatcher OR galago OR galagos OR trachemys OR lungfish OR characiformes OR shorebird OR shorebirds OR giraffe OR giraffes OR micropterus OR scyliorhinus OR cichlidae OR loligo OR porcupine OR porcupines OR chub OR chubs OR solea OR pleuronectes OR hylidae OR viperidae OR echis OR sorex OR anchovy OR lagomorph OR ostriches OR vulture OR vultures OR whitefish OR araneus OR jird OR jirds OR tern OR esox OR drake OR drakes OR elapidae OR gallopavo OR chordata OR myodes OR caretta OR serinus OR grouse OR misgurnus OR meles OR blackbird OR blackbirds OR coregonus OR bobwhite OR bobwhites OR heteropneustes OR mammoth OR mammoths OR turdus OR rhinella OR ateles OR characidae OR clupea OR bungarus OR brill OR “struthio camelus” OR sloth OR sloths OR pteropus OR sculpin OR anthropoids OR pollock OR pollocks OR morone OR “pan paniscus” OR litoria OR chipmunk OR chipmunks OR balaenoptera OR marmota OR melopsittacus OR hyrax OR lemming OR lemmings OR halibut OR hylobates OR lates OR caiman OR caimans OR sigmodonOR stenella OR barbel OR barbels OR sterna OR parakeet OR parakeets OR phocoena OR leptodactylus OR canidae OR buteo OR harengus OR gopher OR gophers OR marmot OR marmots OR gosling OR gos-lings OR platichthys OR gar OR gars OR sebastes OR marsupialia OR notophthalmus OR gazelle OR gazelles OR insectivora OR paridae OR felidae OR russula OR galliformes OR bombina OR colobus OR echidna OR echidnas OR seabass OR syncerus OR plaice OR “blue tit” OR “blue tits” OR pagrus OR catfishes OR cetacea OR barbus OR cygnus OR ficedula OR chamois OR colu-bridae OR perches OR coelacanth OR fitch OR urodela OR cynops OR martes OR halichoerus OR aix OR salmonidae OR leucis-cus OR magpie OR magpies OR silurus OR whiting OR whitings OR anseriformes OR colinus OR rhea OR chlorocebus OR octo-don OR acinonyx OR mouflon OR mouflons OR ibex OR tetraodon OR bufonidae OR equidae OR jackal OR cephalopoda OR dendroaspis OR glama OR muskrat OR muskrats OR sable OR sables OR wildebeest OR streptopelia OR albifrons OR vespertilionidae OR woodpecker OR woodpeckers OR muntjac OR muntjacs OR archosaur OR branta OR cricetulus OR megalobrama OR poeciliidae OR desmodus OR snakehead OR snakeheads OR tench OR teal OR teals OR bandicoot OR bandicoots OR apteronotus OR phyllostomidae OR crocidura OR buzzard OR buzzards OR larimichthys OR cercoce-bus OR pipistrellus OR erithacus OR impala OR impalas OR rousettus OR haddock OR haddocks OR tinca OR ratite OR calidris OR cynoglossus OR hypophthalmichthys OR bullock OR bullocks OR dromedaries OR alectoris OR filly OR salamandra OR cingulata OR bitis OR grus OR ammodytes OR macaw OR macaws OR hypoleuca OR sapajus OR cyprin-odontiformes OR hippopotamus OR pelophylax OR capybara OR capybaras OR weasel OR weasels OR cairina OR cynomys OR lutra OR cockatoo OR cockatoos OR lachesis OR lagomorpha OR rupicapra OR daboia OR “orang utan” OR “orang utans” OR platyrrhini OR charadriiformes OR micrurus OR psittaciformes OR spalax OR loris OR mustelidae OR sylvilagus OR vitti-ceps OR cockatiel OR mustelus OR cottus OR erythrocebus OR dipodomys OR platessa OR callicebus OR loricariidae OR catostomus OR cuneata OR cyanistes OR cyprinodon OR sigmodontinae OR elasmobranchii OR trichechus OR sauropsid OR xenarthra OR dormouse OR perissodactyla OR nautilus OR cirrhinus OR gulo OR gulos OR tragelaphus OR merula OR numida OR sciaenidae OR cerastes OR sciuridae OR gibbosus OR octopuses OR eland OR elands OR phyllomedusa OR pogona OR walrus OR agamidae OR leptodactylidae OR ridibundus OR leontopithecus OR anteater OR anteaters OR pelodis-cus OR cebidae OR columbianus OR “pelteobagrus fulvidraco” OR hominoidea OR mandrillus OR “zonotrichia leucophrys” OR agama OR gobiocypris OR “bearded dragon” OR “bearded dragons” OR sarotherodon OR talpa OR discoglossus OR hagfishes OR sphenodon OR gudgeon OR amphiuma OR aythya OR tenrec OR tenrec OR hominidae OR risoria OR salamandridae OR camelidae OR columbiformes OR latimeria OR plover OR plovers OR afrotheria OR “falco sparverius” OR polecat OR polecats OR crotalinae OR salvadora OR tarsier OR lucioperca OR anchovies OR lungfishes OR terrapin OR “dromaius novaehollandiae” OR lateolabrax OR eigenmannia OR pelamis OR theropithecus OR murinae OR gander OR gymnotus OR pseudacris OR gymnophiona OR gymnotiformes OR laticauda OR falconiformes OR dugong OR dugongs OR pintail OR pintails OR rook OR rooks OR lasiurus OR catshark OR catsharks OR micropogonias OR “red junglefowl” OR paddlefish OR ophiophagus OR hollandicus OR nymphicus OR pimelodidae OR aepyceros OR cobitidae OR strigiformes OR cobitis OR dormice OR alytes OR calloselasma OR guanaco OR guanacos OR phasianidae OR “round goby” OR trichogaster OR catarrhini OR eelpout OR eelpouts OR galaxias OR gaur OR pungitius OR suslik OR susliks OR flatfishes OR percidae OR caprinae OR todarodes OR osmerus OR ameiurus OR anthropoidea OR “castor canadensis” OR pouting OR poutings OR tetraodontiformes OR arvicolinae OR siamang OR siamangs OR “castor fiber” OR nomascus OR “red knot” OR “red knots” OR syngnathidae OR iguanidae OR eretmochelys OR ursidae OR callimico OR columbidae OR microhylidae OR anaxyrus OR menidia OR pipistrelle OR greylag OR pipidae OR scandentia OR bowfin OR bowfins OR dendrobatidae OR zenaida OR bushbaby OR harrier OR harriers OR macropodidae OR pygerythrus OR clupeidae OR odorrana OR corvidae OR jerboa OR jerboas OR canutus OR hylobatidae OR clupeiformes OR “great cormorant” OR “great cormorants” OR scorpaeniformes OR chondrostean OR garfish OR proboscidea OR psetta OR diapsid OR serotinus OR tetrao OR walruses OR carcharhiniformes OR leucoraja OR pumpkinseed OR dosidicus OR acipenseriformes OR daubentonii OR emberizidae OR gadiformes OR hyraxes OR stizostedion OR wolverine OR wolverines OR lissotriton OR acanthurus OR centrarchidae OR gloydius OR laurasiatheria OR limosa OR psittacula OR leporidae OR proteidae OR zander OR zanders OR arapaima OR bagridae OR cyprinodontidae OR mithun OR pandion OR jackdaw OR jackdaws OR procyonidae OR carus OR jaculus OR salmoniformes OR “common sole” OR “common soles” OR protobothrops OR calamita OR brachyteles OR trionyx OR turdidae OR boidae OR luscinia OR pugnax OR euarchontoglires OR saithe OR saithes OR symphalangus OR aardvark OR aardvarks OR oystercatcher OR oystercatchers OR arius OR corydoras OR poacher OR poachers OR aurochs OR cebuella OR crecca OR lemuridae OR sirenia OR lemmus OR perdix OR glires OR lepidosaur OR muskox OR deinagkistrodon OR pholidota OR holocephali OR cercopithecinae OR clariidae OR agapornis OR doryteuthis OR tyrannidae OR dicroglossidae OR godwit OR godwits OR monedula OR pongidae OR atheriniformes OR colobinae OR lophocebus OR atelidae OR cottidae OR leucopsis OR acanthuridae OR didelphimorphia OR elver OR elvers OR lapponica OR dermoptera OR “european hake” OR “european hakes” OR gerbillinae OR banteng OR hartebeest OR hartebeests OR hogget OR haematopus OR “anguis fragilis” OR “grey heron” OR “grey herons” OR “blue whiting” OR “blue whitings” OR furnariidae OR macrovipera OR esocidae OR lapwing OR lapwings OR mylopharyngodon OR wallabia OR beloniformes OR potoroo OR potoroos OR “athenenoctua” OR pleuronectidae OR bushbabies OR muscicapidae OR alligatoridae OR fuligula OR “bush baby” OR guineafowl OR spoonbill OR spoonbills OR viverridae OR catostomidae OR zebrafishes OR ibexes OR vendace OR estrildidae OR monotremata OR sepiella OR ambystomatidae OR shelduck OR shelducks OR treeshrew OR treeshrews OR hoplobatrachus OR pochard OR hoolock OR hoolocks OR lynxes OR antilope OR antilopes OR blackbuck OR blackbucks OR cricetinae OR paramisgurnus OR skylark OR skylarks OR soleidae OR allobatesOR “northern wheatear” OR “northern wheatears” OR pitheciidae OR takin OR theria OR vanellus OR galaxiidae OR lorisidae OR ostralegus OR palaeognathae OR “stone loach” OR alauda OR callitrichinae OR caniformia OR duttaphrynus OR ictaluridae OR osteoglossiformes OR poultries OR curema OR “ruddy turnstone” OR “ruddy turnstones” OR sheatfish OR sunfishes OR centropomidae OR hemachatus OR platalea OR thamnophilidae OR “song thrush” OR atherinopsidae OR siluridae OR tadorna OR chroicocephalus OR ermine OR ermines OR gavialis OR ruff OR tupaiidae OR diprotodontia OR hyaenidae OR antilopinae OR crocodylidae OR herpestidae OR hippopotamidae OR “northern shoveler” OR “round gobies” OR cheirogaleidae OR indriidae OR fundulidae OR pythonidae OR rhynchocephalia OR anodorhynchus OR “red-backed shrike” OR “red-backed shrikes” OR triakidae OR phalangeridae OR aoudad OR boreoeutheria OR “eurasian jay” OR “eurasian jays” OR feliformia OR haplorhini OR osteoglossidae OR paenungulata OR struthioniformes OR ferina OR sanderlingOR sanderlings OR spheniscidae OR cuttlefishes OR cygnet OR dasycneme OR gadwall OR gadwalls OR “pelobates fuscus” OR wryneck OR wrynecks OR afrosoricida OR culaea OR “dover sole” OR “dover soles” OR paralichthyidae OR passeridae OR osteolaemus OR “song thrushes” OR bluethroat OR bluethroats OR hydrophiidae OR megrim OR mephitidae OR strepsirhini OR tomistoma OR epidalea OR osmeriformes OR “bush babies” OR tarsiiform OR atelinae OR bufotes OR “eurasian coot” OR “eurasian coots” OR galagidae OR geopelia OR philomachus OR tubulidentata OR bombinatoridae OR pelobatidae OR tachysurus OR ailuridae OR woodlark OR wood-larks OR alcelaphinae OR redshank OR redshanks OR salientia OR “sand smelt” OR “sand smelts” OR woodmice OR woodmouse OR dasyproctidae OR “eurasian wigeon” OR “eurasian wigeons” OR garganey OR garganeys OR “lemon sole” OR “lemon soles” OR “common dab” OR “common dabs” OR graylag OR graylags OR leucorodia OR osphronemidae OR bewickii OR “common moorhen” OR “common moorhens” OR decapodiformes OR gobblerOR gobblers OR odontophoridae OR paddlefishes OR eutheria OR salmonine OR esociformes OR “eurasian woodcock” OR “eurasian woodcocks” OR “european smelt” OR “european smelts” OR goldfishes OR tenches OR tyranni OR “common chaffinch” OR “common chaffinchs” OR “common redstart” OR “common redstarts” OR “common roach” OR “common roachs” OR “great knot” OR “great knots” OR potoroidae OR alytidae OR coregonine OR dipteral OR leveret OR “poeciliopsis gracilis” OR amphiumidae OR batrachoi-diformes OR “bighead goby” OR heteropneustidae OR lullula OR “norway pout” OR “norway pouts” OR sipunculida OR dog-fishes OR sebastidae OR tarsiidae OR alethinophidia OR “common nase” OR “common nases” OR “common sandpiper” OR “common sandpipers” OR “eurasian blackcap” OR “eurasian blackcaps” OR pterocnemia OR syngnathiformes OR “common chaffinches” OR eupleridae OR octopodiformes OR phascolarctidae OR scophthalmidae OR “starry smooth-hound” OR “starry smooth-hounds” OR whitefishes OR cuniculidae OR “european sprat” OR “european sprats” OR “rosy bitterling” OR “rosy bitterlings” OR “common dace” OR “common daces” OR “lesser weever” OR “lesser weevers” OR scaldfish OR “water rail” OR “water rails” OR alouattinae OR centrarchiformes OR “common whitethroat” OR “common whitethroats” OR gavi-alidae OR “grey gurnard” OR “grey gurnards” OR lateolabracidae OR rheiformes OR “tub gurnard” OR “tub gurnards” OR “common chiffchaff” OR “common chiffchaffs” OR garfishes OR “lesser whitethroat” OR “lesser whitethroats” OR myoxidae OR seabasses OR spariformes OR umbridae OR “yellow boxfish” OR anabantiformes OR aotidae OR “common bleak” OR “common bleaks” OR “common rudd” OR “common rudds” OR “greater pipefish” OR hapale OR nandiniidae OR “stone loaches” OR whinchat OR whinchats OR acanthuriformes OR “brotula barbata” OR “common ling” OR “common lings” OR “common roaches” OR cottonrat OR cottonrats OR douroucoulis OR dromaiidae OR fitches OR fitchew OR galaxiiformes OR laprine OR saimiriinae OR solenette OR tarsii OR “tompot blenny” OR “common dragonet” OR “common dragonets” OR “longspined bullhead” OR “longspined bullheads” OR monotremate OR monotremates OR pempheriformes OR perdicinae OR presbytini OR smegmamorpha OR “bighead gobies” OR “carangaria incertae sedis” OR coiidae OR “fivebeard rockling” OR foulmart OR foumart OR grasskeet OR “greater pipefishes” OR ibices OR millionfish OR muguliformes OR “norwegian topknot” OR peewit OR “red sea sailfin tang” OR rupicapras OR sheatfishes OR “tompot blennies” OR “twait shad” OR “yellow boxfishes”):ti,ab,kw11


The following three search terms will be combined:

(I) (drink*[tiab] OR water int*[tiab] OR polydipsi*[tiab] OR fluid int*[tiab] OR water con*[tiab] OR fluid con*[tiab])5

(II) (“schizophren*”[tiab] OR psychosis[tiab] OR psychotic[tiab])

(III) (animal experimentation[MeSH] OR models, animal[MeSH] OR Animals[Mesh:noexp] OR animal population groups [MeSH] OR chordata[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR vertebrates[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR amphibians[MeSH] OR birds[MeSH] OR fishes[MeSH] OR reptiles[MeSH] OR mammals[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR primates[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR eutheria[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR artiodactyla[MeSH] OR carnivore[MeSH] OR cephalopoda[MeSH] OR cetacea[MeSH] OR chiroptera[MeSH] OR elephants[MeSH] OR hyraxes[MeSH] OR insectivora[MeSH] OR lagomorpha[MeSH] ORmarsupialia[MeSH] OR monotremata[MeSH] OR perissodactyla[MeSH] OR Proboscidea Mammal[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR rodentia[MeSH] OR scandentia[MeSH] OR sirenia[MeSH] OR cingulata[MeSH] OR haplorhini[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR strepsirhini[MeSH] OR platyrrhini[MeSH] OR tar-sii[MeSH] OR catarrhini[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR cercopithecidae[MeSH] OR hylobatidae[MeSH] OR hominidae[MeSH Terms:noexp] OR gorilla gorilla[MeSH] OR pan paniscus[MeSH] OR pan troglodytes[MeSH] OR pongo[MeSH]) OR ((rat[tiab] OR rats[tiab] OR animal[tiab] OR animals[tiab] OR mice[tiab] OR in vivo[tiab] OR mouse[tiab] OR rabbit[tiab] OR rabbits[tiab] OR mu-rine[tiab] OR pig[tiab] OR pigs[tiab] OR dog[tiab] OR dogs[tiab] OR bovine[tiab] OR fish[tiab] OR vertebrate[tiab] OR verte-brates[tiab] OR cat[tiab] OR cats[tiab] OR rodent[tiab] OR rodents[tiab] OR mammal[tiab] OR mammals[tiab] OR chicken[tiab] OR chickens[tiab] OR monkey[tiab] OR monkeys[tiab] OR sheep[tiab] OR canine[tiab] OR canines[tiab] OR porcine[tiab] OR cattle[tiab] OR bird[tiab] OR birds[tiab] OR hamster[tiab] OR hamsters[tiab] OR primate[tiab] OR primates[tiab] OR cow[tiab] OR cows[tiab] OR chick[tiab] OR horse[tiab] OR horses[tiab] OR avian[tiab] OR avians[tiab] OR calf[tiab] OR swine[tiab] OR swines[tiab] OR xenopus[tiab] OR turkeys[tiab] OR bear[tiab] OR bears[tiab] OR frog[tiab] OR frogs[tiab] OR zebrafish[tiab] OR goat[tiab] OR goats[tiab] OR equine[tiab] OR calves[tiab] OR poultry[tiab] OR macaque[tiab] OR macaques[tiab] OR mole[tiab] OR moles[tiab] OR ovine[tiab] OR lamb[tiab] OR lambs[tiab] OR fishes[tiab] OR diptera[tiab] OR amphibian[tiab] OR amphibians[tiab] OR snake[tiab] OR snakes[tiab] OR ruminant[tiab] OR ruminants[tiab] OR hen[tiab] OR hens[tiab] OR piglet[tiab] OR piglets[tiab] OR feline[tiab] OR felines[tiab] OR simian[tiab] OR simians[tiab] OR laevis[tiab] OR trout[tiab] OR trouts[tiab] OR teleost[tiab] OR tele-osts[tiab] OR salmon[tiab] OR salmons[tiab] OR seal[tiab] OR seals[tiab] OR bull[tiab] OR bulls[tiab]OR ewe[tiab] OR ewes[tiab] OR hedgehog[tiab] OR hedgehogs[tiab] OR macaca[tiab] OR macacas[tiab] OR proteus[tiab] OR pigeon[tiab] OR pigeons[tiab] OR bat[tiab] OR bats[tiab] OR duck[tiab] OR ducks[tiab] OR chimpanzee[tiab] OR chimpanzees[tiab] OR baboon[tiab] OR ba-boons[tiab] OR deer[tiab] OR rana[tiab] OR ranas[tiab] OR carp[tiab] OR carps[tiab] OR heifer[tiab] OR swallow[tiab] OR swal-lows[tiab] OR lizard[tiab] OR lizards[tiab] OR canis[tiab] OR sow[tiab] OR sows[tiab] OR cynomolgus[tiab] OR quail[tiab] OR quails[tiab] OR reptile[tiab] OR reptiles[tiab] OR turtle[tiab] OR turtles[tiab] OR buffalo[tiab] OR gerbil[tiab] OR gerbils[tiab] OR boar[tiab] OR boars[tiab] OR squirrel[tiab] OR squirrels[tiab] OR oncorhynchus[tiab] OR mus[tiab] OR toad[tiab] OR toads[tiab] OR fowl[tiab] OR fowls[tiab] OR rerio[tiab] OR danio[tiab] OR ara[tiab] OR aras[tiab] OR musculus[tiab] OR tadpole[tiab] OR tad-poles[tiab] OR mulatta[tiab] OR salmo[tiab] OR ram[tiab] OR eagle[tiab] OR eagles[tiab] OR ferret[tiab] OR ferrets[tiab] OR gold-fish[tiab] OR catfish[tiab] OR whale[tiab] OR whales[tiab] OR fox[tiab] OR foxes[tiab] OR ape[tiab] OR apes[tiab] OR elephant[tiab] OR elephants[tiab] OR bos[tiab] OR marmoset[tiab] OR marmosets[tiab] OR cod[tiab] OR cods[tiab] OR shark[tiab] OR sharks[tiab] OR wolf[tiab] OR eel[tiab] OR eels[tiab] OR auratus[tiab] OR rattus[tiab] OR zebra[tiab] OR zebras[tiab] OR tilapia[tiab] OR tilapi-as[tiab] OR gilt[tiab] OR camel[tiab] OR camels[tiab] OR squid[tiab] OR gallus[tiab] OR marsupial[tiab] OR marsupials[tiab] OR vole[tiab] OR voles[tiab] OR fascicularis[tiab] OR ovis[tiab] ORsalmonid[tiab] OR salmonids[tiab] OR tiger[tiab] OR tigers[tiab] OR dolphin[tiab] OR dolphins[tiab] OR robin[tiab] OR robins[tiab] OR carpio[tiab] OR opossum[tiab] OR opossums[tiab] OR cypri-nus[tiab] OR salamander[tiab] OR salamanders[tiab] OR felis[tiab]OR mink[tiab] OR minks[tiab] OR swan[tiab] OR swans[tiab] OR norvegicus[tiab] OR bufo[tiab] OR torpedo[tiab] OR bass[tiab] OR lamprey[tiab] OR lampreys[tiab] OR sus[tiab] OR python[tiab] OR pythons[tiab] OR tetrapod[tiab] OR tetrapods[tiab] OR shrew[tiab]OR shrews[tiab] OR lion[tiab] OR lions[tiab] OR hog[tiab] OR hogs[tiab] OR songbird[tiab] OR songbirds[tiab] OR oreochromis[tiab] OR starling[tiab] OR starlings[tiab] OR caprine[tiab] OR carassius[tiab] OR owl[tiab] OR owls[tiab] OR newt[tiab] OR newts[tiab] OR papio[tiab] OR scrofa[tiab] OR hare[tiab] OR hares[tiab] OR gorilla[tiab] OR gorillas[tiab] OR flounder[tiab] OR flounders[tiab] OR goose[tiab] OR herring[tiab] OR herrings[tiab] OR theri-an[tiab] OR buffaloes[tiab] OR canary[tiab] OR sparrow[tiab] OR sparrows[tiab] OR microtus[tiab] OR octopus[tiab] OR troglo-dytes[tiab] OR tuna[tiab] OR amphibia[tiab] OR chinchilla[tiab] OR chinchillas[tiab] OR ide[tiab] OR oryzias[tiab] OR cervus[tiab] OR kangaroo[tiab] OR kangaroos[tiab] OR armadillo[tiab] OR armadillos[tiab] OR callithrix[tiab] OR pan troglodytes[tiab] OR saimiri[tiab] OR cichlid[tiab] OR cichlids[tiab] OR donkey[tiab] OR donkeys[tiab] OR bream[tiab] OR char[tiab] OR chars[tiab] OR finch[tiab] OR raccoon[tiab] OR raccoons[tiab] OR bothrops[tiab] ORanguilla[tiab] OR perch[tiab] OR cricetus[tiab] OR seabird[tiab] OR seabirds[tiab] OR buck[tiab] OR bucks[tiab] OR naja[tiab] OR coturnix[tiab] OR salmonids[tiab] OR geese[tiab] OR minnow[tiab] OR minnows[tiab] OR raptor[tiab] OR raptors[tiab] OR merione[tiab] OR meriones[tiab] OR rodentia[tiab] OR elaphus[tiab] OR am-niote[tiab] OR amniotes[tiab] OR elasmobranch[tiab] OR emu[tiab] OR emus[tiab] OR peromyscus[tiab] OR hominid[tiab] OR hominids[tiab] OR bubalus[tiab] OR crotalus[tiab] OR gull[tiab] OR gulls[tiab] OR anas[tiab] OR anura[tiab] OR lemur[tiab] OR le-murs[tiab] OR crow[tiab] OR crows[tiab] OR camelus[tiab] OR gibbon[tiab] OR gibbons[tiab] OR waterfowl[tiab] OR parrot[tiab] OR parrots[tiab] OR eels[tiab] OR cob[tiab] OR stickleback[tiab] OR sticklebacks[tiab] OR columba[tiab] OR mesocricetus[tiab] OR ambystoma[tiab] OR raven[tiab] OR ravens[tiab] OR gadus[tiab] OR penguin[tiab] OR penguins[tiab] OR orangutan[tiab] OR orangutans[tiab] OR sturgeon[tiab] OR sturgeons[tiab] OR cuniculus[tiab] OR aves[tiab] OR virginianus[tiab] OR cephalopod[tiab] OR cephalopods[tiab] OR cebus[tiab] OR sparus[tiab] OR tortoise[tiab] OR tortoises[tiab] OR guttata[tiab] OR morhua[tiab] OR unguiculatus[tiab] OR dogfish[tiab] OR vulpes[tiab] OR mallard[tiab] OR mallards[tiab] OR apodemus[tiab] OR alligator[tiab] OR alligators[tiab] OR oryctolagus[tiab] OR llama[tiab] OR llamas[tiab] OR reindeer[tiab] OR mustela[tiab] OR duckling[tiab] OR duck-lings[tiab] OR wolves[tiab] OR sander[tiab] OR amazona[tiab] OR zebu[tiab] OR badger[tiab] OR badgers[tiab] OR dove[tiab] OR doves[tiab] OR ictalurus[tiab] OR capra[tiab] OR capras[tiab] OR equus[tiab] OR camelid[tiab] OR camelids[tiab] OR poecilia[tiab] OR mule[tiab] OR mules[tiab] OR perciformes[tiab] OR salvelinus[tiab] OR labrax[tiab] ORcyprinidae[tiab] OR ariidae[tiab] OR crocodile[tiab] OR crocodiles[tiab] OR fundulus[tiab] OR dicentrarchus[tiab] OR clarias[tiab] OR cercopithecus[tiab] OR chirop-tera[tiab] OR alpaca[tiab] OR alpacas[tiab] OR pike[tiab] OR pikes[tiab] OR paralichthys[tiab] OR puma[tiab] OR pumas[tiab] OR didelphis[tiab] OR pisces[tiab] OR macropus[tiab] OR triturus[tiab] OR bison[tiab] OR bisons[tiab] OR epinephelus[tiab] OR gas-terosteus[tiab] OR panthera[tiab] OR acipenser[tiab] OR mackerel[tiab] OR mackerels[tiab] OR tamarin[tiab] OR tamarins[tiab] OR ostrich[tiab] OR anolis[tiab] OR vervet[tiab] OR vervets[tiab] OR wallaby[tiab] OR glareolus[tiab] OR beaver[tiab] OR beavers[tiab] OR dromedary[tiab] OR catus[tiab] OR killifish[tiab] OR pimephales[tiab] OR promelas[tiab] OR aotus[tiab] OR phoca[tiab] OR pan-da[tiab] OR pandas[tiab] OR porpoise[tiab] OR porpoises[tiab] OR myotis[tiab] OR yak[tiab] OR yaks[tiab] OR agkistrodon[tiab] OR vipera[tiab] OR otter[tiab] OR otters[tiab] OR turbot[tiab] OR turbots[tiab] OR squamate[tiab] OR carnivora[tiab] OR mullet[tiab] OR mullets[tiab] OR hawk[tiab] OR hawks[tiab] OR taeniopygia[tiab] OR seahorse[tiab] OR seahorses[tiab] OR poecilia reticulata[tiab] OR falcon[tiab] OR falcons[tiab] OR prosimian[tiab] OR prosimians[tiab] OR parus[tiab] OR perca[tiab] OR fingerling[tiab] OR fin-gerlings[tiab] OR antelope[tiab] OR antelopes[tiab] OR tupaia[tiab] OR passeriformes[tiab] OR sepia[tiab] OR saguinus[tiab] OR coyote[tiab] OR coyotes[tiab] OR pongo[tiab] OR meleagris[tiab] OR reptilia[tiab] OR lepus[tiab] OR psittacine[tiab] OR hagfish[tiab] OR warbler[tiab] OR warblers[tiab] OR russell's viper[tiab] OR russell's vipers[tiab] OR smolt[tiab] OR smolts[tiab] OR budgeri-gar[tiab] OR sardine[tiab] OR sardines[tiab] OR cavia[tiab] OR cavias[tiab] OR hyla[tiab] OR pleurodeles[tiab] OR siluriformes[tiab] OR great tit[tiab] OR great tits[tiab] OR guppy[tiab] OR bonobo[tiab] OR bonobos[tiab] OR rutilus[tiab] OR trichosurus[tiab] OR mu-ridae[tiab] OR phodopus[tiab] OR channa[tiab] OR squalus[tiab] OR lynx[tiab] OR sturnus[tiab] OR petromyzon[tiab] OR vituli-na[tiab] OR monodelphis[tiab] OR cuttlefish[tiab] OR adder[tiab] OR adders[tiab] OR lepomis[tiab] OR canaria[tiab] OR gam-busia[tiab] OR guppies[tiab] OR xiphophorus[tiab] OR flatfish[tiab] OR koala[tiab] ORkoalas[tiab] OR labeo[tiab] OR stingray[tiab] OR stingrays[tiab] OR chelonia[tiab] OR lampetra[tiab] OR spermophilus[tiab] OR crocodilian[tiab] OR passer domesticus[tiab] OR sciurus[tiab] OR artiodactyla[tiab] OR ranidae[tiab] OR corvus[tiab] OR necturus[tiab] OR platypus[tiab] OR canaries[tiab] OR bo-vid[tiab] OR lagopus[tiab] OR trimeresurus[tiab] OR gariepinus[tiab] OR marten[tiab] OR martens[tiab] OR drosophilidae[tiab] OR mugil[tiab] OR sunfish[tiab] OR porcellus[tiab] OR cypriniformes[tiab] OR alouatta[tiab] OR scophthalmus[tiab] OR anser[tiab] OR electrophorus[tiab] OR putorius[tiab] OR iguana[tiab] OR iguanas[tiab] OR lama[tiab] OR lamas[tiab] OR takifugu[tiab] OR cir-cus[tiab] OR eptesicus[tiab] OR flycatcher[tiab] OR galago[tiab] OR galagos[tiab] ORtrachemys[tiab] OR lungfish[tiab] OR chara-ciformes[tiab] OR shorebird[tiab] OR shorebirds[tiab] OR giraffe[tiab] OR giraffes[tiab] OR micropterus[tiab] OR scyliorhinus[tiab] OR cichlidae[tiab] OR loligo[tiab] OR porcupine[tiab] OR porcupines[tiab] OR chub[tiab] OR chubs[tiab] OR solea[tiab] OR pleu-ronectes[tiab] OR hylidae[tiab] OR viperidae[tiab] OR echis[tiab] OR sorex[tiab] OR anchovy[tiab] OR lagomorph[tiab] OR ostrich-es[tiab] OR vulture[tiab] OR vultures[tiab] OR whitefish[tiab] OR araneus[tiab] OR jird[tiab] OR jirds[tiab] OR tern[tiab] OR esox[tiab] OR drake[tiab] OR drakes[tiab] OR elapidae[tiab] OR gallopavo[tiab] OR chordata[tiab] OR myodes[tiab] OR caretta[tiab] OR ser-inus[tiab] OR grouse[tiab] OR misgurnus[tiab] OR meles[tiab] OR blackbird[tiab]OR blackbirds[tiab] OR coregonus[tiab] OR bob-white[tiab] OR bobwhites[tiab] OR heteropneustes[tiab] OR mammoth[tiab] OR mammoths[tiab] OR turdus[tiab] OR rhinella[tiab] OR ateles[tiab] OR characidae[tiab] OR clupea[tiab] OR bungarus [tiab] OR brill[tiab] OR struthio camelus[tiab] OR sloth[tiab] OR sloths[tiab] OR pteropus[tiab] OR sculpin[tiab] OR anthropoids[tiab] OR pollock[tiab] OR pollocks[tiab] OR morone[tiab] OR pan paniscus[tiab] OR litoria[tiab] OR chipmunk[tiab] OR chipmunks[tiab] OR balaenoptera[tiab] OR marmota[tiab] OR melopsitta-cus[tiab] OR hyrax[tiab] OR lemming[tiab] OR lemmings[tiab] OR halibut[tiab] OR hylobates[tiab] OR lates[tiab] OR caiman[tiab] OR caimans[tiab] OR sigmodon[tiab] OR stenella[tiab] OR barbel[tiab] OR barbels[tiab] OR sterna[tiab] OR parakeet[tiab] OR para-keets[tiab] OR phocoena[tiab] OR leptodactylus[tiab] OR canidae[tiab] OR buteo[tiab] OR harengus[tiab] OR gopher[tiab] OR go-phers[tiab] OR marmot[tiab] OR marmots[tiab] OR gosling[tiab] OR goslings[tiab] OR platichthys[tiab] OR gar[tiab] OR gars[tiab] OR sebastes[tiab] OR marsupialia[tiab] OR notophthalmus[tiab] OR gazelle[tiab] OR gazelles[tiab] OR insectivora[tiab] OR pari-dae[tiab] OR felidae[tiab] OR russula[tiab] OR galliformes[tiab] OR bombina[tiab] OR colobus [tiab] OR echidna[tiab] OR echid-nas[tiab] OR seabass[tiab] OR syncerus[tiab] OR plaice[tiab] OR blue tit[tiab] OR blue tits[tiab] OR pagrus[tiab] OR catfishes[tiab] OR cetacea[tiab] OR barbus[tiab] OR cygnus[tiab] OR ficedula[tiab] OR chamois[tiab] OR colubridae[tiab] OR perches[tiab] OR coelacanth[tiab] OR fitch[tiab] OR urodela[tiab] OR cynops[tiab] OR martes[tiab] OR halichoerus[tiab] OR aix[tiab] OR salmon-idae[tiab] OR leuciscus[tiab] OR magpie[tiab] OR magpies[tiab] OR silurus[tiab] OR whiting[tiab] OR whitings[tiab] OR anser-iformes[tiab] OR colinus[tiab] OR rhea[tiab] OR chlorocebus[tiab] OR octodon[tiab] OR acinonyx[tiab] OR mouflon[tiab] OR mouf-lons[tiab] OR ibex[tiab] OR tetraodon[tiab] OR bufonidae[tiab] OR equidae[tiab] OR jackal[tiab] OR cephalopoda[tiab] OR den-droaspis[tiab] OR glama[tiab] OR muskrat[tiab] OR muskrats[tiab] OR sable[tiab] OR sables[tiab] OR wildebeest[tiab] OR strep-topelia[tiab] OR albifrons[tiab] OR vespertilionidae[tiab] OR woodpecker[tiab] OR woodpeckers[tiab] OR muntjac[tiab] OR munt-jacs[tiab] OR archosaur[tiab] OR branta[tiab] OR cricetulus[tiab] OR megalobrama[tiab] OR poeciliidae[tiab] OR desmodus[tiab] OR snakehead[tiab] OR snakeheads[tiab] OR tench[tiab] OR teal[tiab] OR teals[tiab] OR bandicoot[tiab] OR bandicoots[tiab] OR apteronotus[tiab] OR phyllostomidae[tiab] OR crocidura[tiab] OR buzzard[tiab] OR buzzards[tiab] OR larimichthys[tiab] OR cercocebus[tiab] OR pipistrellus[tiab] OR erithacus[tiab] OR impala[tiab] OR impalas[tiab] OR rousettus[tiab] OR haddock[tiab] OR haddocks[tiab] OR tinca[tiab] OR ratite[tiab] OR calidris[tiab] OR cynoglossus[tiab] OR hypophthalmichthys[tiab] OR bullock[tiab] OR bullocks[tiab] OR dromedaries[tiab] OR alectoris[tiab] OR filly[tiab] OR salamandra[tiab] OR cingulata[tiab] OR bitis[tiab] OR grus[tiab] OR ammodytes[tiab] OR macaw[tiab] OR macaws[tiab] OR hypoleuca[tiab] OR sapajus[tiab] OR cyprinodontiformes[tiab] OR hippopotamus[tiab] OR pelophylax[tiab] OR capybara[tiab] OR capybaras[tiab] OR weasel[tiab] OR weasels[tiab] OR cairina[tiab] OR cynomys[tiab] OR lutra[tiab] OR cockatoo[tiab] OR cockatoos[tiab] OR lachesis[tiab] OR lagomorpha[tiab] OR rupicapra[tiab] OR daboia[tiab] OR orang utan[tiab] OR orang utans[tiab] OR platyrrhini[tiab] OR charadriiformes[tiab] OR micrurus[tiab] OR psittaciformes[tiab] OR spalax[tiab] OR loris[tiab] OR mustelidae[tiab] OR sylvilagus[tiab] OR vitticeps[tiab] OR cockatiel[tiab] OR mustelus[tiab] OR cottus[tiab] OR erythrocebus[tiab] OR dipodomys[tiab] OR platessa[tiab] OR callicebus[tiab] OR loricariidae[tiab] OR catostomus[tiab] OR cuneata[tiab] OR cyanistes[tiab] OR cyprinodon[tiab] OR sigmodontinae[tiab] OR elasmobranchii[tiab] OR trichechus[tiab] OR sauropsid[tiab] OR xenarthra[tiab] OR dormouse[tiab] OR perissodactyla[tiab] OR nautilus[tiab] OR cirrhinus[tiab] OR gulo[tiab] OR tragelaphus[tiab] OR merula[tiab] OR numida[tiab] OR sciaenidae[tiab] OR cerastes[tiab] OR sciuridae[tiab] OR gibbosus[tiab] OR octopuses[tiab] OR eland[tiab] OR elands[tiab] OR phyllomedusa[tiab] OR pogona[tiab] OR walrus[tiab] OR agamidae[tiab] OR leptodactylidae[tiab] OR ridibundus[tiab] OR leontopithecus[tiab] OR anteater[tiab] OR anteaters[tiab] OR pelodiscus[tiab] OR cebidae[tiab] OR columbianus[tiab] OR pelteobagrus fulvidraco[tiab] OR hominoidea[tiab] OR mandrillus[tiab] OR zonotrichia leucophrys[tiab] OR agama[tiab] OR gobiocypris[tiab] OR bearded dragon[tiab] OR bearded dragons[tiab] OR sarotherodon[tiab] OR talpa[tiab] OR discoglossus[tiab] OR hagfishes[tiab] OR sphenodon[tiab] OR gudgeon[tiab] OR amphiuma[tiab] OR aythya[tiab] OR tenrec[tiab] OR tenrec[tiab] OR hominidae[tiab] OR risoria[tiab] OR salamandridae[tiab] OR camelidae[tiab] OR columbiformes[tiab] OR latimeria[tiab] OR plover[tiab] OR plovers[tiab] OR afrotheria[tiab] OR falco sparverius[tiab] OR polecat[tiab] OR polecats[tiab] OR crotalinae[tiab] OR salvadora[tiab] OR tarsier[tiab] OR lucioperca[tiab] OR anchovies[tiab] OR lungfishes[tiab] OR terrapin[tiab] OR dromaius novaehollandiae[tiab] OR lateolabrax[tiab] OR eigenmannia[tiab] OR pelamis[tiab] OR theropithecus[tiab] OR murinae[tiab] OR gander[tiab] OR gymnotus[tiab] OR pseudacris[tiab] OR gymnophiona[tiab] OR gymnotiformes[tiab] OR laticauda[tiab] OR falconiformes[tiab] OR dugong[tiab] OR dugongs[tiab] OR pintail[tiab] OR pintails[tiab] OR rook[tiab] OR rooks[tiab] ORlasiurus[tiab] OR catshark[tiab] OR catsharks[tiab] OR micropogonias[tiab] OR red junglefowl[tiab] OR paddlefish[tiab] OR ophiophagus[tiab] OR hollandicus[tiab] OR nymphicus[tiab] OR pimelodidae[tiab] OR aepyceros[tiab] OR cobitidae[tiab] OR strigiformes[tiab] OR cobitis[tiab] OR dormice[tiab] OR alytes[tiab] OR calloselasma[tiab] OR guanaco[tiab] OR phasianidae[tiab] OR round goby[tiab] OR trichogaster[tiab] OR catarrhini[tiab] OR eelpout[tiab] OR eelpouts[tiab] OR galaxias[tiab] OR gaur[tiab] OR pungitius[tiab] OR suslik[tiab] OR susliks[tiab] OR flatfishes[tiab] OR percidae[tiab] OR caprinae[tiab] OR todarodes[tiab] OR osmerus[tiab] OR ameiurus[tiab] OR anthropoidea[tiab] OR castor canadensis[tiab] OR pouting[tiab] OR poutings[tiab] OR tetraodontiformes[tiab] OR arvicolinae[tiab] OR siamang[tiab] OR siamangs[tiab] OR castor fiber[tiab] OR nomascus[tiab] OR red knot[tiab] OR red knots[tiab] OR syngnathidae[tiab] OR iguanidae[tiab] OR eretmochelys[tiab] OR ursidae[tiab] OR callimico[tiab] OR columbidae[tiab] OR microhylidae[tiab] OR anaxyrus[tiab] OR menidia[tiab] OR pipistrelle[tiab] OR greylag[tiab] OR pipidae[tiab] OR scandentia[tiab] OR bowfin[tiab] OR bowfins[tiab] OR den-drobatidae[tiab] OR zenaida[tiab] OR bushbaby[tiab] OR harrier[tiab] OR harriers[tiab] OR macropodidae[tiab] OR pygerythrus[tiab] OR clupeidae[tiab] OR odorrana[tiab] OR corvidae[tiab] OR jerboa[tiab] OR jerboas[tiab] OR canutus[tiab] OR hylobatidae[tiab] OR clupeiformes[tiab] OR great cormorant[tiab] OR great cormorants[tiab] OR scorpaeniformes[tiab] OR chondrostean[tiab] OR garfish[tiab] OR proboscidea[tiab] OR psetta[tiab] OR diapsid[tiab] OR serotinus[tiab] OR tetrao[tiab] OR walruses[tiab] OR carcharhiniformes[tiab] OR leucoraja[tiab] OR pumpkinseed[tiab] OR dosidicus[tiab] OR acipenseriformes[tiab] OR daubentonii[tiab] OR emberizidae[tiab] OR gadiformes[tiab] OR hyraxes[tiab] OR stizostedion[tiab] OR wolverine[tiab] OR wolverines[tiab] OR lissotriton[tiab] OR acanthurus[tiab] OR centrarchidae[tiab] OR gloydius[tiab] OR laurasiatheria[tiab] OR limosa[tiab] OR psittacula[tiab] OR leporidae[tiab] OR proteidae[tiab] OR zander[tiab] OR zanders[tiab] OR arapaima[tiab] OR bagridae[tiab] OR cyprinodontidae[tiab] OR mithun[tiab] OR pandion[tiab] OR jackdaw[tiab] OR jackdaws[tiab] OR procyonidae[tiab] OR carus[tiab] OR jaculus[tiab] OR salmoniformes[tiab] OR common sole[tiab] OR common soles[tiab] OR protobothrops[tiab] OR calamita[tiab] OR brachyteles[tiab] OR trionyx[tiab] OR turdidae[tiab] OR boidae[tiab] OR luscinia[tiab] OR pugnax[tiab] OR euarchontoglires[tiab] OR saithe[tiab] OR saithes[tiab] OR symphalangus[tiab] OR aardvark[tiab] OR aardvarks[tiab] OR oystercatcher[tiab] OR oystercatchers[tiab] OR arius[tiab] OR corydoras[tiab] OR poacher[tiab] OR poachers[tiab] OR aurochs[tiab] OR cebuella[tiab] OR crecca[tiab] OR lemuridae[tiab] OR sirenia[tiab] OR lemmus[tiab] OR perdix[tiab] OR glires[tiab] OR lepidosaur[tiab] OR muskox[tiab] OR deinagkistrodon[tiab] OR pholidota[tiab] OR holocephali[tiab] OR cercopithecinae[tiab] OR clariidae[tiab] OR agapornis[tiab] OR doryteuthis[tiab] OR tyrannidae[tiab] OR dicroglossidae[tiab] OR godwit[tiab] OR godwits[tiab] OR monedula[tiab] OR pongidae[tiab] OR atheriniformes[tiab] OR colobinae[tiab] OR lophocebus[tiab] OR atelidae[tiab] OR cottidae[tiab] OR leucopsis[tiab] OR acanthuridae[tiab] OR didelphimorphia[tiab] OR elver[tiab] OR elvers[tiab] OR lapponica[tiab] OR dermoptera[tiab] OR european hake[tiab] OR european hakes[tiab] OR gerbillinae[tiab] OR banteng[tiab] OR hartebeest[tiab] OR hartebeests[tiab]OR hogget[tiab] OR haematopus[tiab] OR anguis fragilis[tiab] OR grey heron[tiab] OR grey herons[tiab] OR blue whiting[tiab] OR blue whitings[tiab] OR furnariidae[tiab] OR macrovipera[tiab] OR esocidae[tiab] OR lapwing[tiab] OR lapwings[tiab] OR mylopharyngodon[tiab] OR wallabia[tiab] OR beloniformes[tiab] OR potoroo[tiab] OR potoroos[tiab] OR athene noctua[tiab] OR pleuronectidae[tiab] OR bushbabies[tiab] OR muscicapidae[tiab] OR alligatoridae[tiab] OR fuligula[tiab] OR bush baby[tiab] OR guineafowl[tiab] OR spoonbill[tiab] OR spoonbills[tiab] OR viverridae[tiab] OR catostomidae[tiab] OR zebrafishes[tiab] OR ibexes[tiab] OR vendace[tiab] OR estrild-idae[tiab] OR monotremata[tiab] OR sepiella[tiab] OR ambystomatidae[tiab] OR shelduck[tiab] OR shelducks[tiab] OR tree-shrew[tiab] OR treeshrews[tiab] OR hoplobatrachus[tiab] OR pochard[tiab] OR hoolock[tiab] OR hoolocks[tiab] OR lynxes[tiab] OR antilope[tiab] OR antilopes[tiab] OR blackbuck[tiab] OR blackbucks[tiab] OR cricetinae[tiab] OR paramisgurnus[tiab] OR sky-lark[tiab] OR skylarks[tiab] OR soleidae[tiab] OR allobates[tiab] OR northern wheatear[tiab] OR northern wheatears[tiab] OR pithe-ciidae[tiab] OR takin[tiab] OR theria[tiab] OR vanellus[tiab] OR galaxiidae[tiab] OR lorisidae[tiab] OR ostralegus[tiab] OR palaeog-nathae[tiab] OR stone loach[tiab] OR alauda[tiab] OR callitrichinae[tiab] OR caniformia[tiab] OR duttaphrynus[tiab] OR ictalu-ridae[tiab] OR osteoglossiformes[tiab] OR poultries[tiab] OR curema[tiab] OR ruddy turnstone[tiab] OR ruddy turnstones[tiab] ORsheatfish[tiab] OR sunfishes[tiab] OR centropomidae[tiab] OR hemachatus[tiab] OR platalea[tiab] OR thamnophilidae[tiab] OR song thrush[tiab] OR atherinopsidae[tiab] OR siluridae[tiab] OR tadorna[tiab] OR chroicocephalus[tiab] OR ermine[tiab] OR er-mines[tiab] OR gavialis[tiab] OR ruff[tiab] OR tupaiidae[tiab] OR diprotodontia[tiab] OR hyaenidae[tiab] OR antilopinae[tiab] OR crocodylidae[tiab] OR herpestidae[tiab] OR hippopotamidae[tiab] OR northern shoveler[tiab] OR round gobies[tiab] OR cheirogaleidae[tiab] OR indriidae[tiab] OR fundulidae[tiab] OR pythonidae[tiab] OR rhynchocephalia[tiab] OR anodorhynchus[tiab] OR red-backed shrike[tiab] OR red-backed shrikes[tiab] OR triakidae[tiab] OR phalangeridae[tiab] OR aoudad[tiab] OR boreoeutheria[tiab] OR eurasianjay[tiab] OR eurasian jays[tiab] OR feliformia[tiab] OR haplorhini[tiab] OR osteoglossidae[tiab] OR paenungulata[tiab] OR struthioniformes[tiab] OR ferina[tiab] OR sanderling[tiab] OR sanderlings[tiab] OR spheniscidae[tiab] OR cuttlefishes[tiab] OR cygnet[tiab] OR dasycneme[tiab] OR gadwall[tiab] OR gadwalls[tiab] OR pelobates fuscus[tiab] OR wryneck[tiab] OR wrynecks[tiab] OR afrosoricida[tiab] OR culaea[tiab] OR dover sole[tiab] OR dover soles[tiab] OR paralichthyidae[tiab] OR passeridae[tiab] OR osteolaemus[tiab] OR song thrushes[tiab] OR bluethroat[tiab] OR bluethroats[tiab] OR hydrophiidae[tiab] OR megrim[tiab] OR mephitidae[tiab] OR strepsirhini[tiab] OR tomistoma[tiab] OR epidalea[tiab] OR osmeriformes[tiab] OR bush babies[tiab] OR tarsiiform[tiab] OR atelinae[tiab] OR bufotes[tiab] OR eurasian coot[tiab] OR eurasian coots[tiab] OR galagidae[tiab] OR geopelia[tiab] OR philomachus[tiab] OR tubulidentata[tiab] OR bombinatoridae[tiab] OR pelobatidae[tiab] OR tachysurus[tiab] OR ailuridae[tiab] OR woodlark[tiab] OR woodlarks[tiab] OR alcelaphinae[tiab] OR redshank[tiab] OR redshanks[tiab] OR salientia[tiab] OR sand smelt[tiab] OR sand smelts[tiab] OR woodmice[tiab] OR woodmouse[tiab] OR dasyproctidae[tiab] OR eurasian wigeon[tiab] OR eurasian wigeons[tiab]OR garganey[tiab] OR garganeys[tiab] OR lemon sole[tiab] OR lemon soles[tiab] OR common dab[tiab] OR common dabs[tiab] OR graylag[tiab] OR graylags[tiab] OR leucorodia[tiab] OR osphronemidae[tiab] OR bewickii[tiab] OR common moorhen[tiab] OR common moorhens[tiab] OR decapodiformes[tiab] OR gobbler[tiab] OR gobblers[tiab] OR odontophoridae[tiab] OR paddlefishes[tiab] OR eutheria[tiab] OR salmonine[tiab] OR esociformes[tiab] OR eurasian woodcock[tiab] OR eurasian woodcocks[tiab] OR european smelt[tiab] OR european smelts[tiab] OR goldfishes[tiab] OR tenches[tiab] OR tyranni[tiab] OR common chaffinch[tiab] OR common chaffinchs[tiab] OR common redstart[tiab] OR common redstarts[tiab] OR common roach[tiab] OR common roachs[tiab] OR great knot[tiab] OR great knots[tiab] OR potoroidae[tiab] OR alytidae[tiab] OR coregonine[tiab] OR dipteral[tiab] OR leveret[tiab] OR poeciliopsis gracilis[tiab] OR amphiumidae[tiab] OR batrachoidiformes[tiab] OR bighead goby[tiab] OR heteropneustidae[tiab] OR lullula[tiab] OR norway pout[tiab] OR norway pouts[tiab] OR sipunculida[tiab] OR dogfishes[tiab] OR sebastidae[tiab] OR tarsiidae[tiab] OR alethinophidia[tiab] OR common nase[tiab] OR common nases[tiab] OR common sandpiper[tiab] OR common sandpipers[tiab] OR eurasian blackcap[tiab] OR eurasian blackcaps[tiab] OR pterocnemia[tiab] OR syngnathiformes[tiab] OR common chaffinches[tiab] OR eupleridae[tiab] OR octopodiformes[tiab] OR phascolarctidae[tiab] OR scophthalmidae[tiab] OR starry smooth-hound[tiab] OR starry smooth-hounds[tiab] OR whitefishes[tiab] OR cuniculidae[tiab] OR european sprat[tiab] OR european sprats[tiab] OR rosy bitterling[tiab] OR rosy bitterlings[tiab] OR common dace[tiab] OR common daces[tiab] OR lesser weever[tiab] OR lesser weevers[tiab] OR scaldfish[tiab] OR water rail[tiab] OR water rails[tiab] OR alouattinae[tiab] OR centrarchiformes[tiab] OR common whitethroat[tiab] OR common whitethroats[tiab] OR gavialidae[tiab] OR grey gurnard[tiab] OR grey gurnards[tiab] OR lateolabracidae[tiab] OR rheiformes[tiab] OR tubgurnard[tiab] OR tub gurnards[tiab] OR common chiffchaff[tiab] OR common chiffchaffs[tiab] OR garfishes[tiab] OR lesser whitethroat[tiab] OR lesser whitethroats[tiab] OR myoxidae[tiab] OR seabasses[tiab] OR spariformes[tiab] OR umbridae[tiab] OR yellow boxfish[tiab] OR anabantiformes[tiab] OR aotidae[tiab] OR common bleak[tiab] OR common bleaks[tiab] OR common rudd[tiab] OR common rudds[tiab] OR greater pipe-fish[tiab] OR hapale[tiab] OR nandiniidae[tiab] OR stone loaches[tiab] OR whinchat[tiab] OR whinchats[tiab] OR acanthuri-formes[tiab] OR brotula barbata[tiab] OR common ling[tiab] OR common lings[tiab] OR common roaches[tiab] OR cottonrat[tiab] OR cottonrats[tiab] OR douroucoulis[tiab] OR dromaiidae[tiab] OR fitches[tiab] OR fitchew[tiab] OR galaxiiformes[tiab] OR laprine[tiab] OR saimiriinae[tiab] OR solenette[tiab] OR tarsii[tiab] OR tompot blenny[tiab] OR common dragonet[tiab] OR common dragonets[tiab] OR longspined bullhead[tiab] OR longspined bullheads[tiab] OR monotremate[tiab] OR monotremates[tiab] OR pempheriformes[tiab] OR perdicinae[tiab] OR presbytini[tiab] OR smegmamorpha[tiab] OR bighead gobies[tiab] OR carangaria incertae sedis[tiab] OR coiidae[tiab] OR fivebeard rockling[tiab] OR foulmart[tiab] OR foumart[tiab] OR grasskeet[tiab] OR greater pipefishes[tiab] OR ibices[tiab] OR millionfish[tiab] OR muguliformes[tiab] OR norwegian topknot[tiab] OR peewit[tiab] OR red sea sailfin tang[tiab] OR rupicapras[tiab] OR sheatfishes[tiab] OR tompot blennies[tiab] OR twait shad[tiab] OR yellow boxfishes[tiab]) NOT medline[sb])11

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

All controlled studies that use animal models of schizophrenia to produce polydipsia will be included. The method of polydipsia induction is to have an outlined relevance to schizophrenia aetiology. The expected relevant models of schizophrenia include dopaminergic, glutamatergic, genetic and developmental models. All posters, reviews, letters and conference abstracts will be excluded.

Screening and annotation

Search results from databases PubMed and Embase will be exported and combined on the reference manager EndNote. Any duplicates of articles will be removed. The remaining articles will be screened by (1) title and abstract for eligibility and (2) full-text screening to confirm definitive inclusion or exclusion from the review. Disagreements between researchers will be resolved by discussion and referral back to the predefined eligibility criteria with involvement of a third researcher if required.

Study quality and risk of bias assessment

Assessment tools for risk of bias and study quality specific for preclinical animal studies will be employed. Risk of bias will be assessed using the SYRCLE Risk of Bias tool.10 Study quality will be assessed using the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies checklist.14


We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist when drafting this protocol.15

Ethical approval

Ethical approval is not applicable to the current study as it is a protocol for a systematic review article.

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated and/or analysed for this study. No data are available.

Ethics approval

Not applicable.



  • Twitter @InsideThe_Brain

  • Collaborators Dr Jose Sanchez-Morgado (Director of Comparative Medicine, Trinity, Dublin, Ireland).

  • Contributors BJ.S: Concept and study design, draft author. WT.O’C: (principal investigator) Expert point of view, advice on validity, protocol, search criteria and inclusion/exclusion criteria. SS: Second reviewer for search.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.